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Deleuze takes as axiomatic the notion that there is no time but the present, which contains past and future. These layers describe different ways in which past and future can be inscribed in a present.

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As this inscription grows more complicated, the status of the present itself becomes more abstract. Basic processes of the universe have a momentum that they carry into each present moment. A 'contraction' of reality refers to the collection of a diffuse ongoing force into the present. Prior thought and behavior, all substance performs contraction. Every organism, in its receptive and perceptual elements, but also in its viscera, is a sum of contractions, of retentions and expectations" Passive synthesis is exemplified by habit.

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Habit incarnates the past and gestures to the future in the present by transforming the weight of experience into an urgency. Habit creates a multitude of "larval selves," each of which functions like a small ego with desires and satisfactions. In Freudian discourse, this is the domain of bound excitations associated with the pleasure principle. Deleuze cites Hume and Bergson as relevant to his understanding of the passive synthesis.

The second level of time is organized by the active force of memory , which introduces discontinuity into the passage of time by sustaining relationships between more distant events. A discussion of destiny makes clear how memory transforms time and enacts a more profound form of repetition:. Relative to the passive synthesis of habit, memory is virtual and vertical.

It deals with events in their depth and structure rather than in their contiguity in time. Where passive syntheses created a field of 'me's,' active synthesis is performed by 'I. Proust and Lacan are key authors for this layer. The third layer of time still exists in the present, but it does so in a way that breaks free from the simple repetition of time. This level refers to an ultimate event so powerful that it becomes omnipresent.

Michel Foucault

It is a great symbolic event, like the murder to be committed by Oedipus or Hamlet. Upon rising to this level, an actor effaces herself as such and joins the abstract realm of eternal return. The me and the I give way to "the man without name, without family, without qualities, without self or I Empty time is associated with Thanatos, a desexualized energy that runs through all matter and supersedes the particularity of an individual psychic system.

Deleuze is careful to point out that there is no reason for Thanatos to produce a specifically destructive impulse or 'death instinct' in the subject; he conceives of Thanatos as simply indifferent. Nietzsche , Borges , and Joyce are Deleuze's authors for the third time. This chapter takes aim at an "image of thought" that permeates both popular and philosophical discourse. According to this image, thinking naturally gravitates towards truth.

Aesthetic ideas as values

Thought is divided easily into categories of truth and error. The model for thought comes from the educational institution, in which a master sets a problem and the pupil produces a solution which is either true or false. This image of the subject supposes that there are different faculties, each of which ideally grasps the particular domain of reality to which it is most suited. In philosophy, this conception results in discourses predicated on the argument that "Everybody knows Descartes , for example, appeals to the idea that everyone can at least think and therefore exists.

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Deleuze points out that philosophy of this type attempts to eliminate all objective presuppositions while maintaining subjective ones. Deleuze maintains, with Artaud , that real thinking is one of the most difficult challenges there is. Thinking requires a confrontation with stupidity , the state of being formlessly human without engaging any real problems.

One discovers that the real path to truth is through the production of sense: the creation of a texture for thought that relates it to its object. Sense is the membrane that relates thought to its other.

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Accordingly, learning is not the memorization of facts but the coordination of thought with a reality. Deleuze's alternate image of thought is based on difference, which creates a dynamism that traverses individual faculties and conceptions. This thought is fundamentally energetic and asignifying: if it produces propositions, these are wholly secondary to its development. At the end of the chapter, Deleuze sums up the image of thought he critiques with eight attributes:.

This chapter expands on the argument that difference underlies thought by proposing a conception of Ideas based on difference.

Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, Robert Paul Wolff Lecture 2

Deleuze returns to his substitution of the differential dx for negation -x , arguing that Ideas can be conceived as "a system of differential relations between reciprocally determined genetic elements" Only by drawing some blood can you tell the two are even related. The Baader-Meinhof Gang, a radical group of young leftists whose violent tendencies were ostensibly part of an effort to purge German society of its lingering Naziism, is throwing molotov cocktails in the streets. Jozef Klemperer psychoanalyst Dr. Lutz Ebersdorf, a first-time actor who, um, bears a passing resemblance to Tilda Swinton under layers of brilliant makeup , a feeble widower who proves to be the last person to ever see Patricia alive.

Lutz Ebersdorf, a first-time actor who, um, bears a passing resemblance to Tilda Swinton under layers of brilliant makeup , a feeble widower who proves to be the last person to ever see Patricia alive. From there, the story directs the brunt of its attention toward the gothic interiors of the Helena Markos Dance Company, a colorless stone kingdom that looks vaguely like a bank designed for depressions. The other women on the faculty — who include o. That approach can be frustrating in the moment, but it pays off on the whole.

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