Home Reyes, Lawney L.
Stock Image. Reyes, Lawney L. Published by University of Arizona Press, Tucson, New Condition: New Soft cover. Save for Later. About this Item pages. New book. When American Indians left reservations in the s, enticed by the federal government's relocation program, many were drawn to cities like Tacoma and Seattle.
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We promise to give your inquiries our prompt attention. Published: 17 Jul Published: 21 Jun Published: 19 Jun Not invisible Washington state takes landmark step on missing Native American women. A new report, the product of 10 meeting with indigenous people across the state, calls for more coordination to tackle the crisis. Published: 17 Jun In a groundbreaking new exhibition, the often unseen or uncredited works of Native American women are being celebrated.
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Published: 7 Jun Ancient Siberia was home to previously unknown humans, say scientists. Indians and Indian supporters had traveled from throughout the Pacific Northwest, including Richard Oakes from Alcatraz and the actress Jane Fonda, nationally known for her anti-Vietnam war protests. I want to win this one. The surf waxed and waned along the rocky beach. The lighthouse stood out among the drab gray military complex, watching over the shores and the forest, holding back in silence the events it saw unfold as the Military Police went about their morning routine.
Native American Activism: 1960s to Present
Suddenly, a group of Indian protestors, teepee poles in hand, scrambled over the north fence, making quick work of the barbed wire barrier then pouring into an open field to set up their insurgent base camp. Across the fort at the front entrance another group rushed in, shouting Red Power chants and beating their drums, after being deployed from two half-mile long caravans.
Over a hundred activists invaded the fort on the morning of March 8th , with several hundred supporters, Indian and non-Indian, cheering them on and providing food and support, joining in from outside the main entrance. Jane Fonda and Grace Thorpe, daughter of athlete Jim Thorpe, were also there to lend a hand and bring media attention to the takeover. In a coordinated counterattack, troops and MPs moved against the protestors with brute force and intimidation, scattering many and arresting dozens. Whitebear was among those arrested, gaining his freedom the next day.
While the initial insurgency had been broken, the movement was just beginning to blossom.
Native Americans | US news | The Guardian
Four days later on March 12, a second wave of Indian activists stormed past the front gate into the fort only to be met with the same resistance by MPs and army soldiers as before. With support from the National Congress of American Indians, Whitebear was able to get a temporary freeze on the Fort Lawton land in November of , which prevented the City of Seattle from obtaining it outright.
This forced the city into negotiations with Whitebear and the UIATF and finally gave the Indians a legal footing for their assertion of the property. From July through November of meetings took place between the two groups as they negotiated who would control the surplus land. On March 29, , two years after the original invasion, the UIATF was granted 20 acres of land on a year lease, renewable at the end of the contract. With his Fort Lawton victory, Whitebear had proven the power of a united urban Indian community.
For two years the UIATF fought to better the conditions of the urban Indian community through peaceful protests, media awareness, and legal representation. Finally with the land from Fort Lawton, the United Indians of All Tribes could start to build a multi-use cultural center. And was he dangerous? In one report filed as the Fort Lawton negotiations were underway, an informant made unsubstantiated claims that Whitebear had researched how to build home-made explosive devices in the months preceding the takeover. Most of the reports in the months after Fort Lawton are mundane descriptions of peaceful protests and meetings along with newspaper clippings and leaflets.
The FBI file also records dissent and rivalries within the Seattle urban Indian population during this time. In spring , the American Indian Movement AIM seized the site of the historical battle of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, beginning an armed standoff with federal authorities that lasted one hundred days and took several lives.
Some reports listed Whitebear as the leader of the local AIM chapter 74 , while other informants declared that no local AIM chapter existed Whitebear is only mentioned in the reports due to his Native American heritage, not due to any actions involving him or the UIAT. Seven years and two months after Bernie Whitebear and over Indian activists and supporters tried to take over the fort, the Daybreak Star cultural and educational center was opened on May 13th Reyes also gave the center its name, inspired by the words of Lakota Black Elk,.
Then as I stood there two men were coming from the East head first like arrows flying and between them rose the Daybreak Star. The center soon offered programs for adult education, child daycare, cultural development through festivals, heritage workshops, art displays, and technical assistance training.
Although Whitebear never married, Laura always remembered him surrounded by kids. He would frequently take the time to pick at-risk youth off the streets at night, bring them to his house, feed them, and give them a place to sleep. Youth suffering from poverty, broken families, and alcohol and drug addictions could go to the shelters to receive a room to live in and any medical care and therapy they needed.
Garner recalled that at the time it was one of the largest awards in the nation for youth development. Whitebear not only wanted to curate and spread awareness about Indian art—traditional and contemporary— in the larger community, he also wanted to create venues of revenue for Indian artists. Daybreak Star regularly offered drum making, woodcarving, and other artistic workshops open to Indians and the general public. Dinner Theatre cultural performances were also hosted every first and third Fridays of the month. These programs offered traditional Indian food dinners such as salmon and buffalo bakes and musical and dance performances put on by members of various tribes.
These artwork and cultural programs therefore not only gave tribes and artists newfound recognition, but also helped them earn money and support themselves. They also questioned the fiscal viability of the project, worried that a lack of future funding would put a strain on Seattle parks funds and thus taxpayer dollars.
Although disappointed, Whitebear did not give up hope. This time Tahoma Park was reworked into an urban center complete with a restaurant featuring Indian food, retail shops, a banquet hall, fish hatchery, and small amphitheater, all built with architecture mimicking a Northwest costal village.
Whitebear had a knack for community organization. A concise and pragmatic speaker, he could effectively organize and unite groups of people under his leadership.www.cantinesanpancrazio.it/components/qukeves/959-rete-dati.php
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But his real value as a leader came in knowing his place in the community and recognizing the importance of being a team player and maintaining close personal relationships with as many people as possible. His hard work and humility advanced the social and cultural needs of the urban Indian community not through confrontation and quarrels, but through compromise and understanding. This peaceful approach proved effective in lobbying for UIATF causes and garnering funds to carry out its programs.
The big brother attitude that Laura remembers Bernie having when she grew up stuck with him his whole life.
At a time when pan-Indianism was in its infancy and ancient tribal feuds still ran deep, Whitebear often acted as a mediator between tribes in order to achieve tribal unity within the urban Indian community. Garner remembers him as being easy to work with and a positive influence in the workplace. And because he was her big brother, she had to agree. His financial lobbying was just as persistent. He understood that in order to maintain the funds UIATF needed to support the urban Indian community he would need to maintain close personal ties with as many influential leaders as possible.
He frequently made trips to and campaigned for funds in Seattle, Olympia, and Washington D.
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He also put on a multitude of fundraisers and community events to raise publicity and money for the foundation.